The keto diet (ketogenic) is a new trend in nutrition. The keto diet started gaining the greatest popularity in 2017 and continues to this day.
The keto diet is one approach to a healthy lifestyle. Natural food products that meet the needs of the human body, with fats and the lowest carbohydrate content, are preferred.
The ketogenic diet is an updated version of the low-carbohydrate diet.
Principles of the keto diet
The main principle of the keto diet is low-carbohydrate foods. The ketogenic diet is based on the body's own processing of fatty acids. Breaking down animal fat that enters the body with food without disrupting carbohydrates is key to a healthy diet using this method.
The low-carbohydrate keto diet is very popular with obesity, people who want to lose weight or stay in shape.
With a minimal or complete absence of carbohydrates in the body, fat burns quickly, a person begins to lose weight. Fats are removed from the body and processed into fatty acids and then into the keto body.
Ketone bodies are fat breakdown products that are produced by the liver. With active energy expenditure or prolonged fasting, the body begins to break down its own stored fat in order to gain energy.
The breakdown of fat and the formation of ketone bodies is known as ketogenesis and is a completely natural process for the human body. Ketogenesis does not result in drastic weight loss.
Features of the keto diet
A characteristic of the keto diet is the substitution of the supplied energy resource - carbohydrates for fats or rather decay products - ketone bodies. In order to reorganize the body and based on individual characteristics, it is necessary to reduce the amount of carbohydrates consumed from 50 to 20 grams per day. It takes 2 to 4 weeks for the body to fully adapt to the new nutritional system. The highest form of fat burning is achieved through a balanced diet.
A specialty of the keto diet compared to other diets of all kinds is the limited amount of carbohydrates in the body, the low protein content and the presence of fats. The daily intake of carbohydrates in food should not exceed 20 grams per day. Ketones, the byproducts of animal fats that the body uses for energy, must have a fat-to-protein and carbohydrate ratio of 2 to 1. In order to maintain a normal metabolism, the body needs to receive large amounts of fat. 75% of the calories in your daily diet should come from fat, the rest from carbohydrates and protein. The calorie intake of products per day should not exceed 5000 kcal. The diet does not limit the time of eating, you can safely eat after 18 hours.
The less a person consumes foods rich in carbohydrates, the more effective the diet in suppressing hunger.
The main part of the daily diet should be fat, followed by protein and last but not least carbohydrates. The peculiarity of this diet, in contrast to others, is that the salt intake is not limited here, which restores the balance of electrolytes.
In the early days of the diet, you should gradually reduce the amount of carbohydrates consumed.
With the strict principle of adhering to the keto diet for weight loss, a person can easily lose 3-5 kilograms of weight in a month without harming their health, reducing the amount of adipose tissue.
Athletes are more likely to stick to a cyclical ketogenic diet, burn fat, make their bodies stand out, and gain muscle mass. The reason for this change lies in the transformation of the hormonal background and the intensified process of the formation of growth hormone. The principle of nutrition is strictly regulated in the training plan.
Benefits of the keto diet
The benefits of the keto diet have already been scientifically proven and recognized by nutritionists. In addition to losing weight or maintaining weight, the condition of the skin, hair and nails improves, food metabolism is normalized, metabolism improves, and immunity increases.
Studies have shown that people who are overweight and have high cholesterol not only lost over 25 pounds after a 56-week keto diet, but also significantly improved their blood sugar and cholesterol levels.
Doctors recommend with caution that a cancer patient diet should be followed. Cancer cells are known to actively feed on glucose, completely excluding it from the diet, and adhering to a carbohydrate-free diet. Sick cells gradually lose their activity.
For lovers of independent weight loss without a doctor's prescription, the simplest diet option is suitable - the keto lifestyle.
The ketogenic diet is widely used by athletes in sports that require high endurance: marathon, triathlon, cycling, extreme sports.
The diet promotes fat burning for the efficient production of an energy source and thus contributes to the maintenance and economical consumption of glycogen (animal starch) during prolonged intense exertion.
The obvious benefits of a keto diet are an overall improvement in well-being, emotional mood, an energy boost, increased efficiency, and increased brain activity.
The ketogenic diet is more of a healthy diet, but only healthy people can stick to it themselves. Before starting such a diet, you need to consult a specialist. He will tell you what pitfalls there may be and how best to get out of them in case of deterioration in health.
Disadvantages of the keto diet
Compared to other weight loss diets, the ketogenic diet is more effective, but long-term adherence can have different consequences.
The disadvantage of the keto diet is that it is not suitable for all people. When glucose levels are low, the body's glycogen stores are depleted. With a sharp transition from a normal to a ketogenic diet, many people experience dizziness, weakness, and drowsiness, as well as difficulty in coordination.
If you experience the following symptoms, you should no longer adhere to the ketogenic diet:
- decreased performance and impaired concentration;
- increased tiredness;
- unpleasant pungent acetone odor from the mouth;
- difficulties with the digestive process;
- poor blood count;
- frequent urination;
- persistent dry mouth;
- decreased appetite.
- Deficiency of minerals and vitamins in the body.
Against the background of a high-fat ketone diet, there may be an excess of ammonia in the blood, which leads to toxic poisoning of the body and a disruption of hormone levels.
During the first week of the diet, chills or fever, fatigue, mild nausea and irritability may occur. You need to drink as much water as possible. Symptoms usually go away within a week and the body gradually adapts to the production of energy from fat stores.
To adjust the diet, special test strips are used that show the ketone level and glucose in the blood.
List of allowed and prohibited foods on the keto diet
Eating this way needs to be approached with caution. There is a specific list of allowed and prohibited foods on the keto diet.
First, let's take a look at what you can eat with the keto diet:
- You can eat all kinds of meat: beef, pork, chicken, turkey, bacon.
- It is allowed to eat seafood and all fatty fish: salmon, chum salmon, mackerel.
- A wide range of dairy products: fatty cottage cheese and yogurt, cream, cheese, butter.
- You can add any seasoning you want while it is cooking. Vegetable salads can be seasoned with olive oil or vegetable oil.
- Nuts, berries and seeds are allowed for a snack.
- Allowed by fruits: avocado, lemon, lime, but if you want something different it is perfectly acceptable.
- chicken eggs.
- The diet must include water, tea without sugar, coffee and mineral water. You need to drink at least 2 liters of fluids a day.
- You can drink dry wine and strong alcohol: a glass of dry wine contains no more than 4-5 grams of carbohydrates, and they are completely absent from vodka.
- With vegetables, low-carbohydrate vegetables are preferred according to the principle: What grows in the ground cannot be (carrots, beets, potatoes) and what can be above the ground (cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, zucchini, spring onions, Salad). All fatty foods go well with vegetables.
- all kinds of legumes and grains - peas, beans, beans, corn;
- low-fat dairy products - low-fat cottage cheese, milk, cream, yogurt, fermented baking milk, yogurt, kefir, varenets;
- Sugar, sugary drinks, reconstituted juices, soda, sweets;
- It is not acceptable to use snacks, chips, and crackers.
- all starchy vegetables: potatoes, pumpkin;
- has to do without rice, grain and pasta;
- Food made from white flour: pastries, muffins, croissants, rolls, pasta.
The consumption of sugar, some fruits and dried fruits must be completely excluded.
Contraindications to the keto diet
People with diseases of the nervous system, with diseases that are associated with the destruction of nerve cells, patients with diabetes mellitus must be carefully addressed about nutritional problems.
There are contraindications for the keto diet in humans:
- suffers from epilepsy;
- diseases associated with disorders of the motor organs;
- the presence of chronic diseases of the liver, kidneys;
- gastrointestinal tract;
- with high cholesterol.
The ketone diet is not recommended for pregnant women or for certain medications.
Keto diet: menu for the week
Nutritionists advise on the principle of diversity. A classic example of a week's keto diet.
- Breakfast - fatty cottage cheese without sugar and flour;
- lunch - any meat with a vegetable garnish;
- for dinner - mushrooms or chicken with herbs.
- Breakfast - avocado salad with sour cream;
- for lunch - meatballs with vegetables;
- in the evening - grilled fish with asparagus.
- Breakfast - cottage cheese with vegetables;
- for lunch - turkey with broccoli;
- For dinner you can prepare an American fish salad with celery sticks.
- in the morning - scrambled eggs and bacon and greasy yogurt;
- for lunch - chicken stewed in sour cream sauce with a vegetable garnish;
- Dinner consists of river fish.
- for breakfast - sugar-free cottage cheese;
- for lunch - green buckwheat with meat;
- in the evening - baked meat with vegetables.
- Breakfast - avocado salad with yogurt;
- for lunch - chicken schnitzel with a vegetable side dish;
- for dinner - stews and herbs.
- Breakfast - boiled eggs and fatty cottage cheese;
- for lunch - steamed veal with mushrooms;
- in the evening - chicken breast with fresh vegetables.
For an afternoon snack, you can drink nuts, avocados, berries, cheese, and mineral water.
Recipes from the keto diet menu
The most common and easiest item on the keto menu is scrambled eggs and bacon or cheese for breakfast. For lunch you can have a serving of meat with herbs and green beans. Fish can be eaten in any form with vegetables for dinner. You can eat a handful of nuts for a snack. Parts can be both large and small as long as the body is saturated.
Here are some simple, complete meals that don't require additional snacks.
Fish salad:Every fatty fish is steamed or boiled, cut into pieces, and added: eggs, pickled cucumbers, onions, mayonnaise or 20% sour cream. You can add some salad stalks.
Chicken with bacon, stewed in sour cream with mushrooms:strips of bacon are fried in olive or sunflower oil, taken out of the pan while cooking and pieces of chicken put in their placeFried a few minutes until golden brown, add: water, chopped onions, mushrooms, fried bacon, sour cream, spices and everything is steamed for a few more minutes.
Quark salad:fresh cucumber, onion and Chinese cabbage are finely chopped, salt and spices are added, leave to rest for 10 minutes so that the vegetables give juice and fat quark is added, pour sour cream mixed with mayonnaise.
There are many recipes for the keto diet. Everyone can choose the best option for themselves from the permitted products.
This diet can be delicious and varied.
Ending the keto diet
After completing the course, fat consumption must be reduced gradually so as not to impair health and to end the keto diet sensibly. In order to maintain metabolism and avoid the body getting into a state of stress, you need to gradually increase the intake of carbohydrates and proteins in small portions.
Together with fats, the calorie intake is reduced. Vegetables and cereals are gradually added to the diet, avoiding sugar and flour products. The daily intake of carbohydrates in the first few days after the end of the diet should be between 70 and 100 grams. It is desirable to keep protein intake at the same level.
Drink plenty of water to stay hydrated.
Nutritionists' opinions on the keto diet
Nutritionists consider the ketogenic diet to be universal, not only for weight loss and weight loss, but also recommend it for improving health. With proper and strict observance of the dietary rules, the diet should contain 80% fat, 10% protein and 10% carbohydrates.
Dietitians have written over 30 scientific articles, and years of research have shown that the ketogenic diet greatly accelerates the reduction of insulin in the blood, a hormone that promotes the accumulation of subcutaneous fat. Diet improves appetite control, diet suppresses the production of hormone warming that provokes hunger. The muscle mass remains the same, the amount of subcutaneous fat is reduced.
Scientific studies have shown that the ketogenic diet is a non-drug treatment for treating certain cardiovascular diseases.
A good diet is not only the key to losing weight, it also has a positive effect on the function of the gastrointestinal tract, heart, liver and kidneys.
A balanced diet that is high in fat for a long time and moderate in protein and carbohydrates, supports a healthy lifestyle, prolongs youth and helps maintain good physical condition. Doctors recommend walking more in the fresh air, getting a full night's sleep, and using only natural products.